Read The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe by Stephen Hawking Free Online
Book Title: The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe|
The author of the book: Stephen Hawking
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Reader ratings: 4.2
Edition: Jaico Publishing House
Date of issue: December 30th 2007
ISBN 13: 9788179925911
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 39.91 MB
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In this series of lectures Stephen W.Hawking tries to give an outline of what we think is the history of the universe from the big bang to black holes.The first lecture briefly reviews past ideas about universe and how we got to our present picture.One might call this the history of the universe. The second lecture describes how both Newton s and Einstein s theories of gravity led to the conclusion that the universe could not be static:it had to be either expanding or contracting.This,in turn,implied that there must have been a time between ten and twenty billion years ago when the density of the universe was infinite.This is called the big bang.It would have been the beginning of the universe. The third lecture talks about the black holes.these are formed when a massive star or an even larger body collapses in on itself under it s own gravitational pull.According to Einstein s general theory of relativity,any one foolish enough to fall into a black hole will be lost forever.they will not be able to come out of the black hole again.Instead,history,as far as they are concerned.will come to a sticky end at a singularity.However,general relativity is a classical theory that is,it does not take into account the uncertainity principle of quantum mechanics. The fourth lecture describes how quantum mechanics allows energy to leak out of black holes.Black holes are not as black as they are painted. The fifth lecture shall apply quantum mechanical ideas to the big bang and the origin of the universe.This leads to the idea that space-time may be finite in extent but without boundary or edge.It would be like the surface of the earth but with two more dimensions. The sixth lecture shows how this boundary proposal could explain why the past is so different from the future,even though the laws of physics are time symmetric. Finally,in the seventh lecture Stephen W.Hawking describes how we are trying to find a unified theory that will include quantum mechanics,gravity,and all oth
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Read information about the authorStephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his father's old college. Stephen wanted to do Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science.
Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton.
Stephen Hawking worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.
His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G.F.R. Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W. Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W. Israel. Stephen Hawking has three popular books published; his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays and most recently in 2001, The Universe in a Nutshell.
Professor Hawking received twelve honorary degrees, was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He was the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes and is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.